A friend asked me to put together a bibliography of research on writing. This is a start.

Commentary_Multilingual_by_Hand – Berninger

Coordinating Transcription & Text Generation – Working Memory – Berninger

Comparison of Pen & Keyboard Transcription Modes in Children with & without Learning Disabilities – Berninger – 2009


Excerpt from BERNINGER – PUBLICATIONS – Voa English Learning – Which Makes the Better Writer: the Hand or the Keyboard:

“Virginia Berninger is an educational psychology professor at the University of Washington in Seattle. She tells us about a study which found that children sometimes do a better job as writers when they compose the words by hand than when they type them on a keyboard.

VIRGINIA BERNINGER: “And this was a chance to follow over two hundred children — it was about two hundred forty — longitudinally, once a year for five years. And I looked comprehensively at writing development. And what we found, which was very surprising to us, is that they wrote longer essays, they wrote the words faster. And, in the paper just published, they wrote more complete sentences in fourth and sixth grade when they were writing in handwriting by pen than when writing on keyboard.


Excerpt from: Handwriting: what do we know and what do we need to know by Jane Medwell and David Wray:

“A major programme of research undertaken over the last 10–15 years (e.g. Berninger, 1994; Berninger and Graham, 1998; Berninger et al., 2006) has investigated the role of handwriting in writing and its findings are extremely interesting. Firstly, it has been established that handwriting is far from a purely motor act. Berninger and Graham (1998) stress that it is ‘‘language by hand’’ and point out that their research suggests that orthographic and memory processes (the ability to recall letter shapes) contribute more to handwriting than do motor skills (Berninger and Amtmann, 2004).”

BERNINGER Writing First – LLW2008

Want to Improve Children’s Writing? Don’t Neglect Their Handwriting by Steve Graham – American Educator – Winter 2009-2010

Berninger – Evidence-Based, Developmentally Appropriate Writing Skills K to 5: Teaching the Orthographic Loop of Working Memory to Write Letters So Developing Writers Can Spell Words, and Express Ideas

Berninger – Teaching Spelling & Writing Alone & Together

Writing as a Means of Learning – Legal Writing

Writing To Read: Evidence for How Writing Can Improve Reading

Write to read: The brain’s universal reading & writing network – Perfetti & Tan – TRENDS IN COGNITIVE SCIENCES

How Handwriting Boosts the Brain – WSJ.com

Cursive Handwriting – Hempenstall (Word doc)

Word processing may be good for children with disabilities: The Power of Word Processing for the Student Writer by Steve Graham

Letter published in the WSJ on the subject of cursive handwriting and dyslexia:

Cursive longhand helps some people in a way few would think about. I am dyslectic to the point that I had to depend on others to read to me for many years. Over 50 years ago I received an engineering degree, and went on to a successful career supervising the design and construction of several big-ticket projects.

With my dyslexia pattern I would never print “dog” as “god” but I could, even today, print “dog” as “bog” and not know the difference, even if someone pointed it out to me. I do not make these mistakes when writing in longhand. I hope the schools continue to teach this method of writing to the dyslectic students.

Robert O. Watkins, PE
Ridgefield, Wash.